Second Generation

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Jewish Organizations in Nuremberg Before 1945

Gerhard Jochem, October 1999. The author wants to thank Mr. Herbert Kolb and Mrs. Rebecca Segal for revising the text. All photographs taken from the stocks of Nuremberg City Archives.

Compared to her membership which scarcely ever exceeded 10,000 persons, the variety of organizations and clubs created by the Jewish Community in Nuremberg before 1945 is astonishing. Shortly after the establishment of the Jewish congregation in 1859, a wave of foundations started with the Israelite Charitable Organization (in existence 1860 - 1938). Right from the beginning, the Jewish citizens of Nuremberg showed their commitment to the common interest by both furnishing foundations in favor of the general public and developing a very differentiated infrastructure of clubs and organizations for all areas of life.

The essential motivations for the foundation of Jewish organizations were the religion (e.g. Orthodox Adas Israel Congregation) or her worldly pendant, the consciousness of the Jewish identity and the also religiously motivated care for the members of the community.

The Nuremberg "Chewra Kaddischa" (Sacred Brotherhood) was established in 1867 and devoted herself to the burial of the dead, the comfort of the surviving relatives and prayer.

esras
Announcement of the Orthodox women's association "Esras Noschim", 1923.

Other primarily religiously defined organizations were the brotherhoods of "Bene Emine" (since 1899), "Chevre Theffilo" (since 1906) and "Gemilos Chasodim" (since 1936). Their main purpose was the joined prayer of their members.

The religious background was also very important for the associations of East European Jews who had immigrated to Germany since the turn of the century. Besides founding a local chapter (LC) of the General Committee of East European Jews in order to represent their common interests, these people organized themselves to conduct the service the way they were used to in their own prayer halls, for example the congregation "Achi-Eser" (since 1917) and "Auhave Scholaum." Charitable purposes were also important to East European Jews in Nuremberg: They founded their own "Jahrzeit- und Krankenhilfsverein" (Yarzeit and nursing organization) and a women's group in support of the sick and women during child birth.

The preservation of the civic rights of the German Jews was the priority of the "Centralverein" (General Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith, LC founded in 1918). During the Weimar Republic the "Centralverein" just like the "Reichsbund juedischer Frontsoldaten" (Federation of Jewish Front Soldiers, LC founded in 1919) had to focus on the fight against the growing anti-Semitism. The same purpose was pursued by the "Verein zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus" (Association in Defense against anti-Semitism) in which Jews and Gentiles together tried to stop the hatred spread by the growing Nazi movement.

The two local mason lodges of Maimonides (founded 1903) and Jakob Herz (founded 1921), both associated with the international Independent Order Of Bnai Brith played an important role in the Jewish community. They maintained for example their own youth club at Obere Turnstrasse.

forth
Bueg Castle, a Jewish youth recreation facility in Forth near Erlangen


The English style Jewish social clubs of "Phoenix" (1873 - 1939) and "Union" (1898 - 1933) were the meeting points of the local Jewish establishment of businessmen, judges, lawyers, physicians and high ranking officials serving the city or the Reich.

The special attention of the different religious and political groups within the Jewish community was aimed towards the youth. The liberal Jewish youth organization Nuremberg-Fuerth, the Jewish Boy Scout Federation, the youth group "Chewrath Bachurim" of the orthodox association "Agudas Jsroel" (since 1899), the girl's group of the women's organization "Esras Noschim" (since 1915) as well as the Zionist Hiking Association "Blau-Weiss Nuremberg" and Jewish sports club "Bar Kochba" offered to Jewish children and adults various opportunities to spend their leisure time with education, trips and exercising.


The politics of the Nazis to exclude the Jewish citizens from public life, granted the until then small local Zionist movement a big draw. The membership and the importance of the Local Zionist Chapter Nuremberg-Fuerth (founded 1905), the LCs of the religiously oriented Zionist federation "Misrachi" (founded 1908) and the WIZO grew remarkably. Facing the brutal pressure of the Nazis the preparation for emigration became their most important task.
wizo
From a WIZO brochure of the late 1930s: Housekeeping practice
In the LCs of the Zionist organizations of "Habonim" and "Hechaluz" teenagers were taught the agricultural and technical skills for Aliyah to Eretz Israel. The local representations of the "Keren Hajessod" and "Keren Kajemeth Lejisrael" raised funds for the acquisition of land and the financial support of the settlers.

The final chapter of Jewish organizations in pre-war Nuremberg were the associations in which the Jewish members excluded from general organizations were ghettoized, e.g. the "Itus" (Jewish Gymnastics and Sports Club, founded 1933, forcibly dissolved in 1939) and the Jewish Cultural Federation.

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List of Jewish associations and clubs up to 1945 in Nuremberg

Officially registered German names, addresses, chairpeople

Explanations

Achi Eser (Brotherly Help), prayer room at Feuerweg 6, chairman in 1929 Mr. M. Friedmann, in 1930 Max Hertstein, salesman, Fuerther Strasse 12
Adas Israel israelitische Religionsgesellschaft, chairman in 1930 Nathan Goldberger, Josephsplatz 20, Rabbi Dr. Klein, synagogue Essenweinstrasse 7
Elementary school of Adas Israel
Classes 1 - 4 Essenweinstrasse 7
Classes 5 - 8 Untere Turnstrasse 8 H

Jeshiva Essenweinstrasse 7

Founded 1875, synagogue opened 1902
Agudas Jsroel (LC), chairman Dr. L. Eisemann, Wiesenstr. 138
Auhave Scholaum, prayer room 1929 Mittlere Kanalstrasse 11
Auswanderer-Beratungsstelle fuer Nordbayern des Hilfsvereins der Juden in Deutschland (established 1937) Emigrants support center
Bar Kochba Nuernberg, Juedischer Turn- und Sportverein, chairman 1929 Dr. Fritz Bloch, Fuerther Strasse 6a, office Theresienstrasse 28, gymnasium Landgrabenstrasse 140 (LC founded 1913)
Centralverein Deutscher Staatsbuerger juedischen Glaubens, chairman in 1929 attorney at law Dr. Berlin, Karolinenstrasse 1
Chewra Kaddischa, chairman in 1929 Mr. Seligmann Gutmann, chairwoman Mrs. Ida Walther Society to deal with the dead
Chorverein Schira Singing club
Esra-Gruppe
Esraheim Erholungsstaette fuer Kinder in Sulzbuerg, chairman 1929 Mr. M. Wechsler, Nuernberg, Zufuhrstrasse 25 Recreation facility in the rural region of Upper Palatine
Esras Noschim, Juedische Frauenvereinigung, chairwoman in 1930 Mrs. Bamberger, Hessestrasse 6 (also girls' club)
Gebetverein "Bene Emine"
Gebetverein "Chevre Theffilo"
Gemilos Chasodim, fuer Minjan in Trauerfaellen, president Mr. Alex Tachauer, Knauerstr. 11
Gesamtausschuss der Ostjuden (LC), chairman Mr. Katz, Krebsgasse 3
Gesellschaft "Phoenix"
Gesellschaft "Union"
Habonim noar chaluzi
Hechaluz
Israelitische Kinderheilstaette Bad Kissingen, director of the sanatorium in Bad Kissingen 1929 Dr. Pinkus Muenz, administrative director in Nuremberg Mrs. Schwarz, Jakobstrasse 12
Israelitische Zentrale Wohlfahrtsstelle, Neue Gasse 12, chairman 1929 Rabbi Dr. Freudenthal Central welfare office
Israelitischer Armenunterstuetzungsverein, chairman Mr. Joseph Guggenheimer, Lindenaststrasse 6, office Neue Gasse 12
Israelitischer Bibliothek- und Leseverein, Treustrasse 7 Friends of the community's library
Israelitischer Frauenwohltaetigkeitsverein fuer Krankenpflege und Sterbefaelle, sowie zur Foerderung der Erwerbstaetigkeit und der Altersversorgung, chairwoman 1929 Mrs. Isabella Heim, Marientorgraben 13, office Neue Gasse 12 Jewish women's charitable organization for nursing and death cases as well as to the support of employment and the provision for the old
Israelitischer Jugendbund "Chewrath Bachurim", Essenweinstrasse 7, also library (founded 1899)
Israelitischer Wohltaetigkeitsverein fuer Hilfe in Erkrankungs- und Sterbefaellen, chairman 1929 Mr. Hugo Baermann, Laufer Torgraben 6, office Neue Gasse 12 (founded 1860)
Israelitisches Erholungsheim fuer Kinder in Forth, Adolf und Julie Schwarz-Stiftung, president 1929 Rabbi Dr. Freudenthal Recreation facility in a castle in Forth near Erlangen
Israelitisches Maedchenstift (Max und Elisa Heimsche Stiftung), founded 1903, chairman Mr Falk, Solgerstrasse 19, director Mrs. Frida Kraemer, Hochstrasse 2 Girls' college
Itus Israelitischer Turn- und Sportverein
Jahrzeit- und Krankenhilfsverein, chairman in 1930 Mr. Chaim Warowitz, Vordere Bleiweissstrasse 7
Jakob Herz-Loge LXXXIX Nr. 913 U.O.B.B., Sitz Nuernberg. President: Rudolf Bing, attorney at law, Maxtorgraben 25 Mason lodge
Juedische Arbeitsstaette und Brockensammlung "Peah" fuer Nuernberg, Fuerth und Umgebung
Juedischer Handwerker-Verein in Nuernberg und Umgebung Jewish craftsmen association
Juedischer Jugendbund Nuernberg Jewish youth federation Nuremberg
Juedischer Jugendverein Esra Nuernberg-Fuerth (founded1918) Orthodox Jewish youth organization
Juedischer Jugendverein Nuernberg-Fuerth, Sitz Nuernberg, office in 1930 at Wurzelbauerstrasse 2
Juedischer Kulturbund Jewish Cultural Ferderation
Juedischer Pfadfinderbund (LC) Jewish boy scout federation
Juedischer Wanderbund Blau-Weiss Nuernberg, Verein der Freunde des Juedischen Wanderbundes Blau-Weiss, chairman 1920 Dr. Adolf Veith, Fuerther Strasse 54 Hiking association
Kameraden (LC) / Kol Jisrael Chawerim (Alliance Israélite Universelle) founded 1927
Keren Hajessod (LC)
Keren Hajischuw (LC)
Keren Kajemeth Lejisrael (LC) Jewish National Fund
Lazarus und Bertha Schwarzsche Altersversorgungsanstalt, Johannisstrasse 17 (founded in 1896), director 1929 Ms. Rosa Weil Elder care home
Maimonides-Loge LVII Nr. 546 U.O.B.B., President: Dr. Ernst Spitzer, dentist, Koenigstrasse 40 Mason lodge, joined office with lodge Jakob Herz at Karolinenstrasse 23, lodge house Untere Pirkheimerstrasse 22
Misrachi (LC)
ORT (LC founded 1929)
Ostjuedischer Frauen-Verein fuer Kranke und Woechnerinnen in Nuernberg, chairwomen in 1930 Mrs. Ella Rothbein and Mrs. Rosa Abusch
Reichsbund juedischer Frontsoldaten (LC), chairman Dr. Landenberger, Karolinenstrasse 13
Verband juedischer Frauen fuer Kulturarbeit in Palaestina (LC)
Verein "Scheerit Israel"
Verein israelitischer Kantoren und der uebrigen Kultusbeamten in Bayern (LC) Association of Israelite cantors and other community servants in Bavaria
Verein zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus (LC)
Verein zur Fuersorge fuer hilfsbeduerftige Waisen und Witwen israelitischer Konfession, chairman 1929 Mr. Ludwig Rosenzweig, Marienplatz 7, office Brunnengasse 25 (founded 1873) Charitable organization in favor of Jewish orphans and widows
WIZO (LC)
Zionistische Ortsgruppe Nuernberg-Fuerth

Literature

Sources from Nuremberg City Archives


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